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Structural Geology: Principles, Concepts, and Problems

by Robert D. Hatcher Jr and Christopher M. Bailey

ISBN: 9780190660376
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ISBN: 9780190660376

Publisher Description

Now thoroughly revised in its third edition, Structural Geology: Principles, Concepts, and Problems incorporates a balanced and broad state-of the-science presentation that combines extensive full-color illustrations with clear, lively writing. The book's breadth enables instructors to cover a wide array of current topics, including stress in the earth, fracking, seismic risk of tectonic structures, the earthquake cycle, and man-made earthquakes.

Author Biography

Robert D. Hatcher, Jr., is Distinguished Scientist and Professor of Structural Geology and Tectonics Emeritus at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. Christopher M. Bailey is Professor of Geology at the College of William & Mary.

Table of Contents

PART 1: INTRODUCTION Chapter 1: Introduction Plate Tectonics Equilibrium Geologic Cycles Chapter 2: Fundamental Concepts and Nontectonic Structures Fundamental Concepts Primary Sedimentary Structures Sedimentary Facies Unconformities Primary Igneous Structures Gravity-Related Features ESSAY: Deciphering a Major Structure in the Southern Highlands of Scotland Impact Structures Chapter 3: Geochronology in Structural Geology Geochronology Stable Isotopes ESSAY: Rock Bodies That Appear to Be the Same in the Field May Not Turn Out to Be When Their Ages Are Determined Chapter 4: Geophysical Techniques and Earth Structure Seismic Reflection Seismic Refraction Earthquakes And Seismic Waves Potential Field Methods Gravity Electrical Methods Borehole Geophysics ESSAY: Geophysical Data and the Structure of Mountain Chains PART 2: MECHANICS: HOW ROCKS DEFORM Chapter 5: Stress Definitions Stress on a Plane Mohr Construction Amontons'' Law and the Coulomb-Mohr Hypothesis Stress Ellipsoid Stress at a Point Measuring Present-Day Stress in the Earth ESSAY: The Earthquake Cycle Chapter 6: Strain and Strain Measurement Definitions Measures of Strain Strain Ellipse and Ellipsoid Simple, General, and Pure Shear ESSAY: Daubre and Mead Experiment Progressive Deformation, Strain Symmetry, and Strain Path Mohr Circle for Strain Tensor Operations for Strain Measuring Strain in Rocks Strain Measurement Techniques From Two to Three Dimensions The Utility of Strain Analysis Concluding Thoughts ESSAY: Finite Strain from Deformed Pebbles Chapter 7: Mechanical Behavior of Rock Materials Definitions Elastic (Hookean) Behavior Permanent Deformation-Ductility Controlling Factors Behavior of Crustal Rocks ESSAY: Jelly Sandwiches, Crme Brle, and the Mechanical Behavior of the Lithosphere Strain Partitioning Chapter 8: Microstructures and Deformation Mechanisms Lattice Defects and Dislocations Deformation Mechanisms Geochemical Processes Microstructures Crystallographic Preferred Orientations Laboratory Models of Deformation Processes Final Thoughts ESSAY: Fault Rocks-A Fourth Class of Rocks PART 3: FRACTURES AND FAULTS Chapter 9: Joints and Shear Fractures ESSAY: Fracking Fracture Analysis Fracture Mechanics: Griffith Theory Joints and Fracture Mechanics Fracture Surface Morphology Joints In Plutons Nontectonic And Quasitectonic Fractures ESSAY: Mesozoic Fracturing of Eastern North American Crust-Product of Extension or Shear? Chapter 10: Faults and Shear Zones Fault Anatomy Anderson''s Classification Recognizing Faults ESSAY: Seismic Risk Associated with Tectonic Structures Shear Zones Shear-Sense Indicators Composite Foliations Strain In Ductile Shear Zones Brittle Shear Zones ESSAY: Existence and Displacement Sense of Large Faults Chapter 11: Fault Mechanics Anderson''s Mechanics and Fundamental Assumptions Anderson''s Fault Types Role of Fluids Frictional Sliding Mechanisms Movement Mechanisms Shear (Frictional) Heating In Fault Zones Reality of Fault Mechanics ESSAY: Artificial Earthquakes Chapter 12: Thrust Faults Nature of Thrust Faults Detachment Within a Sedimentary Sequence Propagation and Termination of Thrusts Features Produced by Erosion ESSAY: Debate About Thrust Faults Crystalline Thrusts ESSAY: Gravity Model Foldbelt Cross-Section Construction and the Room Problem Thrust Mechanics Mechanics of Crystalline Thrusts Chapter 13: Strike-Slip Faults Properties and Geometry Tectonic Setting of Strike-Slip Faulting Geometry Related to Other Fault Types Terminations of Strike-Slip Faults Releasing and Restraining Bends Transtension And Transpression Transforms Mechanics of Strike-Slip Faulting ESSAY: Rigid Indenters and Escape Tectonics Chapter 14: Normal Faults Properties and Geometry Environments and Mechanics ESSAY: Inverted Faults and Tectonic Inheritance PART 4: FOLDS AND FOLDING Chapter 15: Anatomy of Folds Descriptive Anatomy of Folds ESSAY: Gravity-Driven Soft Sediment Folds and Faults Folds at Map and Cross Section Scale Fold Classifications ESSAY: Folds and the Development of the Petroleum Industry Chapter 16: Fold Mechanics Fold Mechanisms and Accompanying Phenomena Deformation Mechanisms and Strain Discussion ESSAY: A Tale of Two Folds: Deciphering the Fold Mechanisms of Two Small Folds Chapter 17: Complex Folds Occurrence and Recognition Superposed Folds and Fold Interference Patterns Recognition of Multiple Fold Phases Noncylindrical And Sheath Folds Formation of Complex Folds Mechanical Implications of Complex Folding ESSAY: The Value of Rosetta Stones PART 5: FABRICS AND STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS Chapter 18: Cleavage and Foliations Definitions Cleavage-Bedding Relationships Cleavage Refraction Mechanics of Slaty Cleavage Formation ESSAY: Early Ideas on the Origin of Slaty Cleavage Crenulation Cleavage Cleavage Fans and Transecting Cleavages Transposition ESSAY: Cleavage Formation and the Identification of Elephants Chapter 19: Linear Structures Definitions Lineations as Flow and Transport Indicators Folds and Lineations Folded Lineations Interpretation of Linear Structures ESSAY: Pitfalls in Interpreting Linear Structures Chapter 20: Structural Geology of Plutons The Nature of Magma Distinguishing Magmatic from Solid-State Tectonic Structures The Enigma of Tabular Pluton Emplacement Emplacement of Stocks and Batholiths ESSAY: A Tale of Two Plutons Chapter 21: Structural Analysis Cross-Section Analysis Deformation Plan in an Orogen Structural Analysis Procedures Structural Analysis in Foreland Fold-Thrust Belts (FFTBs) Structural Analysis of Multiply Deformed Rocks in the Cores Of Orogens ESSAY: Historical Development of Structural Analysis Methods in Metamorphic Rocks Structural Analysis of Multiply Deformed and Transposed Rocks ESSAY: Structural Analysis at Woodall Shoals Analysis of Salt Structures Structural Analysis in Continental Interiors Structural Analysis in Seismically Active Regions-Insight into Paleoseismology PART 6: APPENDICES Appendix 1: Structural Measurements and Observations Directional Reference Frame and Location Orientation Of Planes: Strike and Dip Orientation of Lines: Trend and Plunge; Rake Recording Data Appendix 2: Stereographic Projections and Fabric Diagrams How To Begin Plotting Manually Plotting Planar Structures Plotting Linear Structures Locating Fold Axes Using Equal-Area Plots: Beta And Pi Diagrams Contouring Data Appendix 3: Structural Cross Sections-Methods for Cross-Section Construction Introduction Rules of Cross-Section Construction Editorial Tips for Constructing Cross Sections Taking Cross Sections to the Next Level-Cross-Section Balancing Appendix 4: Woodall Shoals Fabric Data Glossary References Cited Index

Review Quote

"This textbook does a good job of presenting the major material to be covered in a structural geology course. The authors are to be congratulated."--Frederick W. Vollmer, State University of New York at New Paltz "Structural Geology is well organized and well thought out. It has sections on geochemistry, isotope geology, thermochronology, geochronology, and geophysical techniques, all of which are tools that modern structural geologists must have some familiarity with."--Ernest Duebendorfer, Northern Arizona University "I like that they made a clearly written, well-illustrated textbook specifically for juniors and seniors. It definitely fills a notable void."--Maria Elisabeth Brunhart-Lupo, Colorado School of Mines

Product Details

Robert D. Hatcher Jr, Christopher M. Bailey
Short Title
Oxford University Press, USA
Loose Leaf
Publication Date
Principles, Concepts, and Problems
College/Higher Education